GLOBAL CHEMOVET
GLOBAL CHEMOVET

CHEMOVET: Healthy Living for Your Pet

RENAL VET

INDICATIONS OF USE: RENAL VET tablets is a dietary supplement for cats and dogs with potassium deficiency, especially cats with kidney disease and/or primary hyperaldosteronism. antioxidant. Helps improve the proper metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and purines. It compensates for nutritional deficiencies (mainly vitamins and minerals). Improves the activity and functionality of the immune system. Finally, it improves the quality of life of patients with chronic renal failure primary hyperaldosteronism.
During chronic renal failure (CRF), metabolic, biochemical and hormonal changes occur that are frequently accompanied by states of malnutrition. In patients with CKD, it is very important to know the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins such as Biotin (Vitamin B 7), Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B 12), Ac. Folic (Vitamin B 9), Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C), Pyridoxine (Vitamin B 6), Riboflavin (Vitamin B 2), Thiamin (Vitamin B1). This is becoming increasingly relevant, since some of the manifestations of CRF could be due to the deficiency of some of these water-soluble vitamins. The metabolic pathways in which most of them participate are interrelated. In addition to CRF Chronic Renal Failure, it is common to find deficiencies or alterations in the metabolism of vitamins due to the effect of uremic toxins, dietary restrictions, catabolic processes, losses during dialysis treatment and pharmacological interactions.

ADMINISTRATION: Oral.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMPONENTS:
- Anhydrous potassium gluconate: Potassium gluconate is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid, where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. In dietary supplements, potassium is usually present in the form of potassium chloride, but many other forms are also used, including potassium citrate, phosphate, aspartate, bicarbonate, and gluconate. Potassium gluconate is more palatable and non-acidifying like potassium chloride.


- D-Biotin (Vitamin B 7): Biotin (from the Greek bios, "life"), sometimes also called vitamin H, vitamin B7 is a heat-stable vitamin, soluble in water and alcohol, and susceptible to oxidation that It intervenes in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, amino acids and purines. It is essential for the synthesis and degradation of fats and the degradation of certain amino acids. Biotin is important as a cofactor for enzymes involved in the catalysis of essential metabolic reactions to synthesize fatty acids, in gluconeogenesis, and in leucine metabolism. Biotin is found in the cell bound to a specific lysine residue (an amino acid) forming biocytin; biocytin binds covalently to certain enzymes related to the formation or use of carbon dioxide, and thus exerts a coenzyme function: it acts in the transfer (acceptor and donor). It is also of fundamental importance in the production of antibodies and in immunity.


- Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12): Vitamin B12 plays a key role in the metabolism of folic acid. Its essential function is the demethylation of methyltetrahydrofolate and the methylation of Hcy. This step is essential for the regulation of THF, which is involved in DNA synthesis. In the absence of demethylation, signs of folate deficiency occur. Furthermore, vitamin B12 is necessary for the synthesis of myelin, as demonstrated by the severe neuronal alterations experienced in pernicious anemia. Several milligrams of vitamin B12 can be stored in the body and prevent deficiency for several years.

 

- Folic Acid (Vitamin B 9): Folic acid is necessary for DNA synthesis. Its defect in this process leads to megaloblastosis, which occurs in all cells that replicate in the body but is more pronounced in bone marrow cells. Folic acid is involved in the metabolism of amino acids, especially those that are donors of methyl groups, and some of the amino acid reactions catalyzed by folic acid yield methyl groups that later participate in other biochemical processes. Examples of these reactions are the interconversion of glycine and serine, the conversion of Hcy to methionine, and the conversion of histidine to glutamic acid. Furthermore, folic acid is required for purine synthesis in tRNA methylation. Unlike vitamin B12, folate is not involved in myelin synthesis, so its deficiency does not cause neurological pathologies. Vitamin B12 is involved in transmethylation reactions and is necessary for cellular transport and folate storage. Folate in Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRF): Folate metabolism appears to be unbalanced in uremia. During CRF, intestinal absorption of THF (tetrahydrofolate) could decrease. A high incidence of folate deficiency is found in patients with CRF, evidenced by megakaryoblastic changes in the bone marrow and by the presence of hypersegmented polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which could be corrected with folic acid supplementation. In erythropoietin (EPO) treatment, folic acid requirements may be temporarily increased during the time that hemoglobin is rising rapidly. It has been suggested that insufficient folic supplementation in patients with poor folate stores may impair response to EPO. As a consequence of folic acid intake, there is a decrease in mean cell volume and an increased response to erythropoietin. The doses required to maintain good folic acid status in patients with CKD treated with EPO are lower than those required to improve hyperhomocysteinemia.


- Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Vitamin C is useful in the prevention and treatment of patients with kidney disorders. It acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing free radicals, and as an immunomodulator which can help promote kidney health. It improves the activity of leukocytes and protects them from oxidative damage derived from their cytolytic activity. Vitamin C is also essential in the formation of collagen: together with proline and lysine, it reinforces the extracellular matrix, collaborating in the healing process.

 

- Pyridoxine (Vitamin B 6): Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate are the active forms of coenzyme. PLP is synthesized by the action of FMN oxidase (flavin mononucleotide oxidase) and is transported bound to albumin in plasma and hemoglobin in erythrocytes. There are factors that influence plasma PLP levels, such as age (the elderly have lower plasma levels) and some medications frequently used in chronic renal failure. Muscle mass could justify these differences. The plasma level of PLP is inversely proportional to dietary protein intake. PLP is a coenzyme of at least one hundred enzymatic reactions, especially those involved in the metabolism of amino acids and some lipids. Vitamin B6 is essential in gluconeogenesis, facilitating the transamination and phosphorylation of glycogen. Participates in the transformation of tryptophan into niacin. In normal erythrocyte metabolism, it acts as a transaminase coenzyme and influences the affinity of O2 for hemoglobin. Vitamin B6 facilitates the synthesis of various neurotransmitters and modulates the action of certain hormones through the binding of PLP to steroid receptors. Chronic Renal Insufficiency (CRF) and vitamin B6 deficiency share several common features such as peripheral neuropathy, normochromic anemia, depressed immune response, increased risk of infections, central nervous system disorders, and increased body levels of oxalate. This may lead one to think that vitamin B6 deficiency contributes to some of these CRF manifestations. Vitamin B6 deficiency contributes to some of the amino acid abnormalities described in uremia. Causes of vitamin b6 deficiency in CRF: The cause of the deficiency is multifactorial. The intake of vitamin B6 is normally insufficient due to following low-protein diets. About the immune response: Vitamin B6 deficiency in animals is associated with alterations in immune function. These alterations include reduced numbers of blood lymphocytes and granulocytes, decreased lymphocyte maturation, reduced blastogenic response of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimuli, delayed skin hypersensitivity, and reduced antibody production. These findings suggest that some alterations in the immune response in CKD may be caused by vitamin B6 deficiency. Several authors have shown that some of these effects of vitamin B6 deficiency improve with the administration of pyridoxine.


- Riboflavin (Vitamin B 2): After entering the cell, riboflavin is transformed by the action of flavokinase and FAD synthetase into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), the necessary cofactors for many metabolic reactions. Oxidation reduction, including energy production. Riboflavin deficiency may be found in patients with chronic renal failure. Riboflavin deficiency can cause corneal vascularization and dermatitis.


- Thiamine (Vitamin B 1): Thiamine is a coenzyme for the oxidative decarboxylation of a-ketoacids and is involved in carbohydrate metabolism. It is also a coenzyme for transketolase and is part of the pentose-phosphate pathway. This enzyme is abundant in myelinated nerve structures and the reduction in its activity can cause peripheral neuropathies such as beriberi. Regardless of this effect, it has been suggested that thiamine may play a role in nerve impulse transmission by interacting with sodium channels.

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